Cosmology

In the following we are going to analyse the compatibility between Spatial monism with certain cosmological phenomena (not finished).

Vacuum’s energy
. Gravitational red-shift
. Cosmological constant
. Spontaneous symmetry breaking
. Energy density of vacuum in particle physics
. Dark matter

Speed of light
Light is normally attributed with two qualities: to have a constant speed in vacuum, and this speed to be a limit on which energy can travel (nothing can travel faster than light). From the point of view of physical monism, there is no reason why this should be so. Speed, in its classical interpretation, is the rate of motion in space over time. From a monist point of view, speed would be a rate of displacement in the continuity of Space. And in a unitary Space there is no reason why the speed of light should be constant. Indeed, in an asymmetric Space it wouldn’t be so. There is also no reason why there should be a limit to the rate of displacement of energy in Space. This would depend entirely on the degree of asymmetry in Space, and there are no restrictions to this. So theoretically, from a monist point of view, the speed of light might not be constant and things might travel faster than light. And there are some empirical evidence showing that the constancy of the speed of light and its value as a limit might actually not be true, suggesting the validity of physical monism.

First of all, the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum is not a physical property, but a definition. It is not by measurement that we know that the speed of light is constant. We can indeed measure the speed of light, but measurement presupposes a metric space. And on a metric space like space-time for example, the metric depends on the speed of light. Space-time is constructed from the premise that light has a constant speed and that the speed of light is independent from any reference frame. So it is by definition that the speed of light is constant. And it is an important definition, for it allows us to construct metric spaces (of physical significance). Without them, we wouldn’t be able to measure or predict anything.
It happens that light might be the best reference we have to construct metric spaces, for it is the fastest carrier of information we have about the physical world. As far as we can perceive, the speed of light could be constant for there is no faster carries of information to show us otherwise.
From formulations on a metric space like space-time, results that the speed of light marks also a limit to the speed that energy can travel in vacuum; that is, nothing can travel faster than light.
And there is an element of truth on this, for it also happens that light is the minimum information that we can receive from the physical world. Any variation of energy lower than the absorption or emission of a photon is totally transparent to us. So physically, it is true that nothing with a higher energy than light can travel faster than it. But there is no reason why information with lower energy could travel faster. The problem is, that if there is any, we wouldn’t know about it.

From the point of view of physical monism, the constancy of the speed of light and its value as a limit to which information can travel in Space are possible but not necessary conditions of the nature of light. In fact, a totally asymmetric Space would suggest that the speed of light would not be constant. And there is empirical evidence that shows that this might be the case.

. The speed of light might not be constant. We know that the speed of light in mediums other than vacuum is not constant. The higher the density of the medium the lower the speed of light. And because of this phenomena we have effects like refraction, chromatic dispersion and, for example, rainbows.
In vacuum there is no chromatic dispersion, but there is similar a phenomena that might be showing a similar effect: gravitational red-shift. It is known that light travelling through a gravitational field changes its frequency. In particular, light originating from massive star shows red-shifts. In General Relativity, these changes on frequency are interpreted as functions on changes in the geometry of space-time. In physical monism, vacuum wouldn’t be emptiness, and asymmetries in the geometry of Space would be associated with tension and energy. And just as in medium with density, changes in the frequency of light could be associated with changes on its speed. Higher gravity, would be associated with higher asymmetry and tension in space, and lower frequency and speed in light.

. No limit to the speed that energy can travel
. Universe’s background radiation
. Twin particle experiment

The universe’s expansion
. Dark energy –     The universe is expanding at an accelerated rate.

Advertisements

%d bloggers like this: