examples on ethics and morality

Examples of ethical behaviour – ethical behaviour is self-regarding behaviour that affects positively the world around us. It is behaviour that contributes positively to our well-being, the preservation of the environment and the well-being of others.
. Charity
. Conservationism
. Respectful, egalitarian, empathic or good-intentioned social behaviour.
. Loving, caring or friendly behaviour.
. Responsible consumption (e.g. non-wasteful, recycling, fair trade, sustainable, ethical production, etc.)

Note: ethical and moral values are often related, and what is good is normally right. But while moral behaviour depends on principles that are subjective and relative, the positive effects (or goodness) that self-regarding actions sometimes bring to the world are concrete and objective, making ethical judgements objective.

Examples of unethical behaviour – unethical behaviour is self-regarding behaviour with a negative contribution to the world around us. It is behaviour that, in the pursuit of one’s interests, adds to the pain, suffering of others, the impairment of other’s well-being or the destruction of the environment.
. Neglect
. Bullying
. Cheating or taking advantage of others  (e.g. stepping up on a queue, parking on disabled places, etc.)
. Rudeness and disrespect
. Discrimination   (e.g. racism, homophobia, xenophobia, etc.)
. Crime   (e.g. robbery, murder, etc.)
. Abuse  (e.g. rape, parental abuse, etc.)
. Commercial exploitation  (e.g. slavery, child labour, unfair pay, indecent working conditions, etc.)
. Corruption

Note: values on what is unethical and immoral are often related i.e. what is evil is wrong. But notice that, while the immorality of actions depends on principles that are subjective and relative, the pain and  suffering that self-regarding actions sometimes bring to others is concrete and real, making ethical judgements objective.

Examples of moral imperatives – moral behaviour is self-regarding behaviour influenced by moral imperatives. And moral imperatives are rules of conduct that serve as a guide to what we should or ought to do; what is our duty or responsibility; or what is the virtuous or best way of life.
. Thou shall not kill, thou shall not lie, thou shall not covet your neighbours possessions
. Follow the rules of the golden mean
. Live according to Nature
. Live according to God’s will
. Live according to the rules of State and society
. Do to others what you would have other do onto you ( or alternatively, don’t do to others what you wouldn’t have others do onto you)
. Act in such a way, that the maxim of your will could always hold as a principle of universal order.

Note: moral principles are subjective, relative, differing in place and time.

Examples of diverging ethical and moral judgements – morality and ethics are closely related. Usually what is good is right and what is evil is wrong. But they are not identical, and in many cases they diverge.
. Uncontrolled birth rate is not immoral under any standard; yet, at one point in the near future it will be unethical.
. Homosexuality was, and is still considered immoral among many religious circles; yet, it is not unethical.
. Irresponsible consumption (e.g. mass consumption, consumption of luxury, wasteful consumption, etc.) is not immoral, it is socially accepted, it is actively practiced (e.g. it is considered as a mean to higher desirability in wealth, power and social status), and it is stimulated by free market economies (economic growth depends on mass consumption, consumption of luxury, etc.); yet, it is unethical.


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