There are different forms of monism depending on the idea of what the substance is. The four main forms of monism are: physicalism, materialism, pantheism and idealism.

 Physicalism is the idea that the nature of the universe is physical and as described by the laws of physics. Materialism is a particular form of physicalism, and is the idea that the essence of the universe is of matter. Pantheism is the idea that the nature of the universe is divine, being everything a manifestation of God. And idealism is the idea that the nature of the universe is ideal and a manifestation of the mind.

We are proposing yet another form of monism: Spatial monism. We are going to sustain that the universe’s metaphysics is of a unitary physical space.
. This differs from materialism in that we sustain that space is more fundamental than matter and that matter is constituted by physical space itself.
. With physicalism it shares the idea that the nature of the universe is physical, but it differs in the idea that it is as explained by science. Science offers useful interpretations of the physical world, but they are always practical approximations and not true reflections of it. Furthermore, they often include elements (e.g. like a background space, the dissociation of matter from space, etc.) that don’t belong to the world’s reality.
. Spatial monism differs from pantheism in that we propose a unitary substance that is physical and not divine.
. And lastly, it differs from idealism in that the world’s reality is independent from our thought. Mind and thought are natural phenomena arising from the physical world, and not the other way round.


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