On the evidence of Spatial Monism

There are two fundamental conditions that a theory should meet to be valid: first, a logical or internal consistency, and second, consistency with the physical world. In the case of Spatial monism, we believe that both conditions are met. Furthermore, if the theory is right, we would expect that a better understanding of the physical world would converge towards it. And we believe that this is exactly what is happening in theoretical Physics.

The general acceptance of a theory on the other hand, is an altogether different thing. There are several reasons for which a theory, despite all the evidence that might prove it right, might not be accepted (e.g. creationism and Darwin’s theory of evolution).

In the case of Spatial monism (just as for example, in Darwin’s theory of evolution ), there is no single laboratory experiment or mathematical demonstration that can prove right. The evidence of its reality instead, depends on its consistency with the physical world around us. In the following then, we are going to introduce different ways in which Spatial monism is consistent with the physical world. First of all, it is consistent with Physics. Second, it is consistent with the unification theories of Physics (which are actually converging towards monism). And then, it is also consistent with the nature of man and society (a necessary condition in a universe with a unitary and universal Nature).

1 Spatial monism and Physics

One way of showing the consistency of Spatial monism with the physical world, is to show its consistency with Physics. Science is, after all, the best interpretation we have so far of the physical world. Now, Physics is a very extensive field covering many disciplines from classical mechanics, to electromagnetism, particle physics and cosmology. So the most effective way of showing the consistency of Spatial monism would be to show its consistency with the most universal and fundamental principles in Physics. The most universal and fundamental principles in Physics, those behind all the laws of physics from the behaviour of particles to the motion of planets, are:
. Conservation laws e.g. conservation of mass, energy, momentum, etc.
. Principles of minimal variation e.g. action principle.
. Principles of maximal dynamic stability e.g. Pauli exclusion principle, second law of thermodynamics, etc.

These are not independent, but mutually related principles. The first one is probably the most familiar one. The second one is related with laws of motion e.g. Newtonian mechanics, electromagnetism, general relativity, etc. And the third one is related with the dynamics of things  e.g. thermodynamics, dynamics of fluids, and – most relevant to us- the behaviour of complex systems.
A principle, by definition, is a law that is found valid without explanation of how or why it is so. We can show, by defining the physical structure of space, that in a monist universe these mutually related principles are not whims of Nature but properties of the behaviour of Space.
It can be shown then, that the behaviour of the physical world around us is consistent with the behaviour of a unitary physical Space.
2 Unification theories
Physics tends to develop towards a gradual unification of the laws of nature. Laws that once were thought to be fundamental, are gradually found to be particular cases of even more general ones. If spatial monism is right, then the natural outcome of this tendency would be a gradual convergence towards it: and this is exactly what seems to be happening.

Currently, the two most general theories whose unification is being actively pursued are general relativity and quantum field theory. The tendency to unify them shows two things: First, it is showing the unicity of Nature: the natural world is not a world where things respond to independent laws, but everything seems to respond to a unified coherent order (and as we have seen, unicity is a necessary condition of monism); and second, their unification seems to be gradually converging to the idea that space is the fundamental substance in the universe.
For example, Einstein’s field equations, read from left to right, tells us how the geometry of space-time depends on the distribution of matter and energy in the universe. After writing them, Einstein became fixated on what the equations might be telling us if we read them the other way round. If we read the equations from right to left, they seem to suggest that, if we follow the continuity of space down to the structure of matter, this could be somehow related to the geometric structure of space itself. Nowadays, in theoretical physics, for some at least, it is becoming increasingly evident that one of the fundamental conditions for a successful unification of general relativity with quantum field theory is the elimination of background space. If this condition is ever met, it would mean that particles wouldn’t be explained as elements in space, but they would be explained as the behaviour of space itself. If this condition is ever met, it would be the most direct corroboration of physical monism yet.
3 The continuity of Nature on human nature and society.
A monist universe has a unitary Nature with no gaps and no discontinuities. The unicity and continuity of Nature means that man and society can only be natural occurrences responding to the same universal order as everything else.

To follow this continuity, we are going to follow the subject of a relatively new field in science in the study of complexity. Complexity is a link between the nature of particular occurrences (e.g. human nature or society) with universal Nature. Society arises out of human nature: human nature arises out of biological complexity: and we are going to sustain that complexity in turn, is a natural phenomena  that arises from the principles of conservation and dynamic stability; that is, complexity is a natural phenomena consistent with physical monism.

One of the characteristics of complex systems, is their non-linear dynamics where the whole is more than the sum of its parts. As a consequence of this, complex systems are also irreducible. This means that, even if unification theories were successful, the behaviour of complex systems, like life, humanity, etc, cannot be reduced to the effects of gravity or particles. And another characteristic of complexity is its universality. Due to the continuity and universality of Nature, once we know the principles governing the dynamics of complex systems, we shall find them in phenomena as diverse as protein folding, emergence of life, evolution, biological development, human nature, personal development and even society.

As we can see, in a monist universe nothing is left astray, nothing behaves in isolation, nothing is an exception, but everything responds to a coherent, unified  and universal Nature.

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