Metaphysics

Metaphysics

In order to understand the Nature of the universe first we need to understand what is the universe’s constitution. And this falls in the domain of metaphysics. Metaphysics is the study of the most general and fundamental aspect of the universe.

We are going to propose that the universe’s metaphysics is of a monist universe. There are different forms of monism, like physicalism, idealism, pantheism, etc. (see classical metaphysical theories). The form of monism we propose is of physical monism. Physical monism is the idea that Space is a substance and that the universe is constituted by a unitary Space. Space is all that there is in the world, nothing exist out of space and everything can be reduced to it spatiality.

One way of defining a substance, is as an element that only needs itself to exist. That is, a substance is an element that is self-contained, ingenerated and imperishable. Another quality associated with a substance is its inalterability. That is, a substance is an element that is not affected by time and it is always the same. Furthermore, inalterability is a sufficient condition for self-containment. If an element is not affected by time, then it is ingenerated and imperishable.

We propose that there is another quality associated with a substance: unicity. We propose that if there is a substance, then it is unitary. In other words, being a self-contained and inalterable substance is a necessary and sufficient condition for being also unitary.

The sufficient condition would be that, if A is unitary then it is a substance. If A is unitary and all that there is in the universe, then there is nothing to affect A. A is unalterable, self-contained and a substance.

And the necessary condition would be that, if there is a substance, then it is unitary. Suppose that A and B were substances: any information between A and B would mean an exchange of energy and a variation on both A and B; which is impossible for they are invariable substances. So if A and B are substances there is no information between each other. From the point of view of A, B doesn‘t exist and A is all that there is in its universe. And from the point of view of B, A doesn’t exist and B is all that there is in its universe. From the point of view of our universe, if there is a substance it is unitary and all that there is in it.

Notice that we are analysing substances through physical properties; and there is a reason for this. If there is a substance it has to belong to the physical world. The physical world is the universe’s objective reality. If a substance is an element that only needs itself to exist, then it has to be independent from our thought. Any element from our conception, fancy or imagination depends on our thought, it is subjective and therefore is not a substance. The physical world on the other hand, is objective and independent from our thought (see also subjectivity and the unreality of a supernatural world).

We propose that physical Space is the universe’s substance: Space is unaffected by time; therefore it is ingenerated, imperishable and unalterable. Space only needs itself to exist because it is unitary and self-contained. Space is also irreducible: everything can be reduced to its spatiality and Space cannot be reduced to anything more fundamental than itself.

Nature is not a substance but an order of change. More specifically, Nature is an order of change on the behaviour of Space. And because Space is a substance, Nature manifest all the qualities that we experience on its unicity, immanence, invariability and universality. Nature is unitary because it is an order on a unitary Space. Nature is immanent because it is an order in the substance that constitutes things. Nature is invariable because it is an order on a unalterable Space. And Nature is universal because it is an order on the Space that constitutes the whole universe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diversity & change

– One of the problems of monism is how does a unitary substance explain all the diversity and change in the universe. A unitary substance suggests an entity that is homogeneous and static, while the universe is inhomogeneous and dynamic: how is this possible? The answer lies in the physical structure of Space.Classical metaphysical theories

– In this section we compare physical monism with the metaphysics of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Idealism, Materialism and of Kant.

Advertisements

%d bloggers like this: