Introduction

This is a theory about the nature of the universe. It is a theory trying to answer some of the most fundamental questions we can ask ourselves: what is Nature? and why is Nature as it is?

Nature governs the behaviour of everything in the universe: from the motion of planets to the interaction of particles. Nature governs life: the evolution and behaviour of insects, plants and animals. Nature governs human behaviour and society. Nature makes us what we are. Everything in the universe responds to Nature. So what is it?
. Are there multiple natures? or does everything respond to the same nature?
. Is nature external or immanent to things?
. Why does science use mathematics to describe it? Does it have a mathematical essence?
. Why are the laws of nature universal and not local?
. Why are they invariable and not variable?
In brief, what is the essence of Nature?

Despite of all our scientific progress and technological development, the most fundamental questions about Nature are still unknown.

So in the present we are going to present a theory trying to answer these questions. But why do we categorise it as a Natural Philosophy? Isn’t the study of Nature a subject of science? Well yes, to a large extent it is. But there is a limit on what science can tell us about the natural world. The scientific method is useful to study the behaviour of particulars but not to study the most general aspects of Nature. For this we have to rely on philosophy or philosophical reflections about the constitution of the universe. And there is clear reason for this. The most general aspects of the universe are not an objects that can be studied under the microscope. It is the object, the observer and everything in the universe.

This does not mean that we are confined to philosophical speculations. Philosophical reflections about the nature of the universe should be consistent with scientific knowledge. On their own, these reflections are not sufficient, but they are a useful and necessary part of the process.

Natural Philosophy is a term that ceased to be used by the end of the 19th century. Since then, philosophy and science became two distinct disciplines. In this work we are going to reintroduce the concept again. We call our theory a natural philosophy because it is neither scientific nor purely philosophical, but it is constructed with elements of both.

The main difference between science and philosophy is that the objects of study of science are objects from the physical world, while the objects of study of philosophy are abstract concepts. The study of Nature demands both, an understanding of the physical world and some degree of abstraction. Abstraction is needed because any theory about universals is an abstract concept in itself. The laws of nature don’t have any physical existence, other than as abstract mental interpretations of how the physical world behaves. And abstraction is also needed because of our unavoidable condition that the world as we see it, is not the world as we think. There is a gap between the real world and the world that we think. The real world is a universal, objective physical world. The world that we think is always a mental, subjective and abstract interpretation of the real world.

Science and philosophy have their own strengths and weaknesses. One of the strengths of science is that is based on empirical knowledge that help us form coherent interpretations about the physical world. But science lacks reflexive thought; that is, thought on our own thought. In particular, it lacks reflection on our elements of perception. As a consequence, when it interprets the physical world, it does so presupposing valid elements of perception, like the idea of objects, time, space or causality. Philosophy on the other hand, might tend to be abstract and detached from the physical world, but it does include reflexive though on ideas, concept and perception. In the present work we are going to combine both lines of thought in the belief that both science and philosophy can contribute with complementary elements to our understanding of Nature.

The theory.

In the present we are going to introduce a monist theory of the universe. Monism (from the Greek monos ‘single‘) is the concept that everything in the universe is constituted by a unitary element; that is, that the universe and everything in it comes from a single common substance

Monism is an ancient concept that can be traced back to the 5th century BC to the works of thinkers like Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes or Heraclitus. Thales for example, believed that the essence of everything was water, Anaximenes that it was air, Heraclitus that it was fire and Anaximander that it was an indefinite substance he called apeiron. So monism can have many different forms depending on the different elements thought to constitute the universe. Monism can also be categorised by the different types of the substance, for example: idealism is a form of monism where the substance is of a mental nature, physicalism is a form of monism where the substance is of a material nature, and pantheism where it is of a divine nature.

In the present we are going to introduce yet another form of monism: spatial monism. Spacial monism is the idea that the universe, and everything in it, is constituted by a unitary Space. Among the different categories of monism, spatial monism could be thought as a form of physicalism, where the substance constituting the universe is a physical substance, namely physical Space. Although, unlike contemporary physicalism which believes that the world is a physical world as described by science, we believe that the world is a physical world which science only gives a partial and incomplete description.

And what is Space? We propose that Space is an entity in the universe with a real physical existence. Our current knowledge of Space is limited to the mental constructions we created to explain the physical world. If the universe is a monist universe, then we have to abandon our traditional concepts of Space. We have to abandon the idea of Space as a background stage or as a container of objects. Instead, we have to think of Space as an element that constitutes objects. Objects don’t exist in Space, but they are made by it. Objects and Space are not different, but one and the same thing. In a monist universe, Space is all that there is, and everything in it is made of Soace.

Implications from the theory.

Spatial monism introduces a new way of viewing the universe. In particular, it introduces a new way of viewing Nature, particulars and the relationship between particulars and Nature. First of all, in a monist universe there is not a multiplicity of natures but only one Nature. The natures of particulars are not isolated but they are a manifestation of a universal Nature. And second, nothing behaves out of Nature. In a monist universe nothing exists out of space, therefore nothing behaves out of Nature. Everything in the world is a natural occurrence.

More on particulars…

As a corollary to the above, human nature and the nature of society are parts of a universal Nature. In a monist universe there is not a multiplicity of natures, therefore human nature and the nature of society are not exceptions or isolated cases, but they are natural occurrences in a natural world.

The work

In this work we present the theory form the most general to the particular. So we begin the theory with a description of the universe’s metaphysics, which are the most general and fundamental aspects of the universe. Once we introduce monism in metaphysics, we analyse general philosopical questions, like the problems of truth, free-will and subjectivity from a monist point of view. We then describe the physics of a monist universe. And we then follow with a description of complexity, human nature  and human society in a monist universe.

In this work we present the contents of the theory. To navigate through the concepts and ideas of the theory and to see the links between them you can go to Nature – The nature of the universe

On the concept of Spatial monism

On the evidence of Spatial monism

Monism and Quantum Graviy